[citation needed], There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Amerindian religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼí. The Amerindian people of Tigua, Ecuador, are also world-renowned[citation needed] for their traditional paintings. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus (near present-day Quito), and the Cañari (near present-day Cuenca). In 1830, Ecuador separated from Gran Colombia and became an independent republic. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. This treaty disregarded Spanish rights that were confirmed during colonial times by a Spanish-Portuguese treaty over the Amazon regarding territories held by illegal Portuguese settlers. The country has two cities UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Quito and Cuenca, as well as two natural UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Galapagos Islands and Sangay National Park in addition to one World Biosphere Reserve, such as the Cajas Massif. The untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. Ecuador protested that it claimed the Amazon Basin between the Caqueta river and the Marañon-Amazon river. In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music". The executive branch defines foreign policy, appoints the Chancellor of the Republic, as well as ambassadors and consuls, being the ultimate authority over the Armed Forces of Ecuador, National Police of Ecuador, and appointing authorities. Much later migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, and others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes. August 10 is now celebrated as Independence Day, a national holiday.[26]. According to the peace negotiations Peru agreed to return Guayaquil, Tumbez, and Jaén; despite this, Peru returned Guayaquil, but failed to return Tumbes and Jaén, alleging that it was not obligated to follow the agreements, since the Gran Colombia ceased to exist when it divided itself into three different nations - Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. A few months later, a part of the Peruvian liberation army of San Martin decided to occupy the independent cities of Tumbez and Jaén with the intention of using these towns as springboards to occupy the independent city of Guayaquil and then to liberate the rest of the Audiencia de Quito (Ecuador). In the case of Ecuador, Flores-based Ecuador's de jure claims on the following cedulas - Real Cedula of 1563, 1739, and 1740; with modifications in the Amazon Basin and Andes Mountains that were introduced through the Treaty of Guayaquil (1829) which Peru reluctantly signed, after the overwhelmingly outnumbered Gran Colombian force led by Antonio José de Sucre defeated President and General La Mar's Peruvian invasion force in the Battle of Tarqui. Other early Ecuadorian writers include the Jesuits Juan Bautista Aguirre, born in Daule in 1725, and Father Juan de Velasco, born in Riobamba in 1727. Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. Local Concept of the Climate and weather in Ecuador. [42], According to HRW, Correa's government has weakened the freedom of press and independence of the judicial system. Many of them were born in Guayaquil, such as: Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908, Guayaquil – d. 1993, Quito) Araceli Gilbert (b. Its climate and landscape varies from one end of the country to the other. Institutions that have High Performance Computing centers:[150], Currently, the politics of research and investigation are managed by the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Technology (Senescyt). [76] Unemployment mean annual rate for 2009 in Ecuador was 8.5% because the global economic crisis continued to affect the Latin American economies. [28], Ecuador and Peru signed the Brasilia Presidential Act peace agreement on October 26, 1998, which ended hostilities, and effectively put an end to the Western Hemisphere's longest running territorial dispute. The Ministry of Information and Tourism was created on August 10, 1992, at the beginning of the government of Sixto Durán Ballén, who viewed tourism as a fundamental activity for the economic and social development of the peoples. The Napo ranges in width from 500 to 1,800 m (1,640 to 5,906 ft). The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 17.1 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European, Native American, and African descendants. Ecuador is a country in western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, for which the country is named. [80], Oil accounts for 40% of exports and contributes to maintaining a positive trade balance. The equator is a line which is not real drawn around a sphere or planet, such as the Earth.It is one of the lines known as a line of latitude, or circle of latitude.The name "equator" is Latin for "even-maker"; at equator the day and night are exactly the same length around the year.. ("Alfaro Lives, Dammit! Even though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments. Its main body is the National Electoral Council, which is based in the city of Quito, and consists of seven members of the political parties most voted, enjoying complete financial and administrative autonomy. Ecuador is unique in its geography because it is located on the Earth's equator. Ecuador finished in 2nd place in the CONMEBOL qualifiers behind Argentina and above the team that would become World Champions, Brazil. The Productive Development Act enshrines an austerity policy, and reduces the development and redistribution policies of the previous mandate. The capital is Quito.[17][18]. Ecuador map of Köppen climate classification. In spite of Ecuador's considerable mystique, it is rarely featured as a setting in contemporary western literature. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! The pipeline in southern Ecuador did nothing to resolve tensions between Ecuador and Peru, however. Glacier shrinkage is a natural phenomenon that has existed; however, in the last 20 years climate change has exacerbated shrinkage. It is mild year-round in the mountain valleys, with a humid subtropical climate in coastal areas and rainforest in lowlands. Generally though, in the Sierra, there is little variation by day or by season, with changes occurring as you climb or descend instead. When Ecuador seceded from the Gran Colombia, Peru decided not to follow the treaty of Guayaquil of 1829 or the protocoled agreements made. The major routes are Pan American (under enhancement from four to six lanes from Rumichaca to Ambato, the conclusion of 4 lanes on the entire stretch of Ambato and Riobamba and running via Riobamba to Loja). These glaciers are all located on volcanic craters that are affected by the greenhouse effect. Rivers may slow and widen as they cross the hoyas yet become rapid again as they flow from the heights of the Andes to the lower elevations of the other regions. 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